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Open Access Methodology

In vivo measurement of apolipoprotein E from the brain interstitial fluid using microdialysis

Jason D Ulrich124, Jack M Burchett124, Jessica L Restivo124, Dorothy R Schuler124, Philip B Verghese124, Thomas E Mahan124, Gary E Landreth5, Joseph M Castellano124, Hong Jiang124, John R Cirrito124 and David M Holtzman1234*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Neurology, Saint Louis, MO, USA

2 Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Saint Louis, MO, USA

3 Developmental Biology, Saint Louis, MO, USA

4 Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA

5 Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, 44106USA

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Molecular Neurodegeneration 2013, 8:13  doi:10.1186/1750-1326-8-13

Published: 19 April 2013

Abstract

Background

The APOE4 allele variant is the strongest known genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. The link between apolipoprotein E (apoE) and Alzheimer’s disease is likely due in large part to the impact of apoE on the metabolism of amyloid β (Aβ) within the brain. Manipulation of apoE levels and lipidation within the brain has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. However, we know little about the dynamic regulation of apoE levels and lipidation within the central nervous system. We have developed an assay to measure apoE levels in the brain interstitial fluid of awake and freely moving mice using large molecular weight cut-off microdialysis probes.

Results

We were able to recover apoE using microdialysis from human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in vitro and mouse brain parenchyma in vivo. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the hippocampus of wild-type mice and interstitial fluid was collected for 36 hours. Levels of apoE within the microdialysis samples were determined by ELISA. The levels of apoE were found to be relatively stable over 36 hours. No apoE was detected in microdialysis samples from apoE KO mice. Administration of the RXR agonist bexarotene increased ISF apoE levels while ISF Aβ levels were decreased. Extrapolation to zero-flow analysis allowed us to determine the absolute recoverable concentration of apoE3 in the brain ISF of apoE3 KI mice. Furthermore, analysis of microdialysis samples by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis determined lipidated apoE particles in microdialysis samples were consistent in size with apoE particles from CSF. Finally, we found that the concentration of apoE in the brain ISF was dependent upon apoE isoform in human apoE KI mice, following the pattern apoE2>apoE3>apoE4.

Conclusions

We are able to collect lipidated apoE from the brain of awake and freely moving mice and monitor apoE levels over the course of several hours from a single mouse. Our technique enables assessment of brain apoE dynamics under physiological and pathophysiological conditions and in response to therapeutic interventions designed to affect apoE levels and lipidation within the brain.

Keywords:
Microdialysis; Apolipoprotein E; Alzheimer’s disease