Differential effects of 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol on β-amyloid precursor protein levels and processing in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202, USA
Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009, 4:1 doi:10.1186/1750-1326-4-1Published: 6 January 2009
Activation of the liver × receptors (LXRs) by exogenous ligands stimulates the degradation of β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ42), a peptide that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The oxidized cholesterol products (oxysterols), 24-hydroxycholesterol (24-OHC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), are endogenous activators of LXRs. However, the mechanisms by which these oxysterols may modulate Aβ42 levels are not well known.
We determined the effect of 24-OHC and/or 27-OHC on Aβ generation in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that while 27-OHC increases levels of Aβ42, 24-OHC did not affect levels of this peptide. Increased Aβ42 levels with 27-OHC are associated with increased levels of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as β-secretase (BACE1), the enzyme that cleaves APP to yield Aβ. Unchanged Aβ42 levels with 24-OHC are associated with increased levels of sAPPα, suggesting that 24-OHC favors the processing of APP to the non-amyloidogenic pathway. Interestingly, 24-OHC, but not 27-OHC, increases levels of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, which regulate cholesterol transport within and between cells.
These results suggest that cholesterol metabolites are linked to Aβ42 production. 24-OHC may favor the non-amyloidogenic pathway and 27-OHC may enhance production of Aβ42 by upregulating APP and BACE1. Regulation of 24-OHC: 27-OHC ratio could be an important strategy in controlling Aβ42 levels in AD.