Heat shock protein 90 in neurodegenerative diseases
1 Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University and Fisher Foundation for Alzheimer's Disease, New York, NY 10021, USA
2 Department of Medicine and Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA
Molecular Neurodegeneration 2010, 5:24 doi:10.1186/1750-1326-5-24Published: 3 June 2010
Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone with important roles in regulating pathogenic transformation. In addition to its well-characterized functions in malignancy, recent evidence from several laboratories suggests a role for Hsp90 in maintaining the functional stability of neuronal proteins of aberrant capacity, whether mutated or over-activated, allowing and sustaining the accumulation of toxic aggregates. In addition, Hsp90 regulates the activity of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), the master regulator of the heat shock response, mechanism that cells use for protection when exposed to conditions of stress. These biological functions therefore propose Hsp90 inhibition as a dual therapeutic modality in neurodegenerative diseases. First, by suppressing aberrant neuronal activity, Hsp90 inhibitors may ameliorate protein aggregation and its associated toxicity. Second, by activation of HSF-1 and the subsequent induction of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp70, Hsp90 inhibitors may redirect neuronal aggregate formation, and protect against protein toxicity. This mini-review will summarize our current knowledge on Hsp90 in neurodegeneration and will focus on the potential beneficial application of Hsp90 inhibitors in neurodegenerative diseases.